From to , the Taliban held power over roughly three quarters of Afghanistan , and enforced there a strict interpretation of Sharia , or Islamic law. The totalitarian    Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was established in and the Afghan capital was transferred to Kandahar. It held control of most of the country until being overthrown after the American-led invasion of Afghanistan in December following the September 11 attacks. At its peak, formal diplomatic recognition of the Taliban's government was acknowledged by only three nations: Pakistan , Saudi Arabia , and the United Arab Emirates. The Taliban have been condemned internationally for the harsh enforcement of their interpretation of Islamic Sharia law, which has resulted in the brutal treatment of many Afghans, especially women.
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The US government covertly provided violent schoolbooks filled with militant Islamic teachings and jihad and images of weapons and soldiers in an effort to inculcate in children anti-Soviet insurgency and hate for foreigners. The Taliban used the American textbooks but scratched out human faces in keeping with strict fundamentalist interpretation.
The United States Agency for International Development gave millions of dollars to the University of Nebraska at Omaha in the s to develop and publish the textbooks in local languages.
Those early Taliban were motivated by the suffering among the Afghan people, which they believed resulted from power struggles between Afghan groups not adhering to the moral code of Islam; in their religious schools they had been taught a belief in strict Islamic law. Sources state that Pakistan was heavily involved, already in Octoberin the "creating" of the Taliban. The ISI and Pakistan aimed to exert control, while the Taliban leadership manoeuvred between keeping its independence and sustaining support.
On 3 Novemberthe Taliban in a surprise attack conquered Kandahar City. Omar's commanders were a mixture of former small-unit military commanders and madrassa teachers. In a bid to establish their rule over all Afghanistan, the Taliban expanded from their Kandahar base sweeping large territories. In early the movement moved towards Kabulbut they suffered a devastating defeat against government forces of the Islamic State of Afghanistan under the command of Ahmad Shah Massoud.
While retreating from Kabul, Taliban fighters started shelling the city, killing many civilians. The media reported in March that, following the Taliban's shelling, they lost much respect from Afghans and were seen as just another "power-hungry" militia. After a series of setbacks, the Taliban managed to take control of the western city of Herat on 5 September Following allegations by the recognized government that Pakistan was aiding the Taliban, a large mob of people attacked the Pakistani embassy in Kabul the day after.
On 26 Septemberas the Taliban prepared for another major offensive, Massoud ordered a full retreat from Kabul to continue anti-Taliban resistance in the northeastern Hindu Kush mountains instead of engaging in street battles in Kabul. Analysts described the Taliban then as developing into a proxy force for Pakistan's regional interests. The military goal of the Taliban during the period to was to return the order of Abdur Rahman the Iron Emir by the re-establishment of a state with Pashtun dominance within the northern areas.
In Decemberthe UNSC in Resolutionrecognizing humanitarian needs of the Afghan people, condemning the use of Taliban territory for training of "terrorists" and Taliban providing safe haven to Osama bin Ladenissued severe sanctions against Afghanistan under Taliban control.
The Taliban leadership fled into Pakistan. When the Taliban took power intwenty years of continuous warfare had devastated Afghanistan's infrastructure and economy.
There was no running water, little electricity, few telephones, functioning roads or regular energy supplies. Basic necessities like water, food, housing and others were in desperately short supply.
Afghanistan's infant mortality was the highest in the world. A full quarter of all children died before they reached their fifth birthday, a rate several times higher than most other developing countries.
With one million plus deaths during the years of war, the number of families headed by widows had reached 98, by In Kabul, where vast portions of the city had been devastated by rocket attacks, more than half of its 1.
The civil war and its never-ending refugee stream continued throughout the Taliban's reign. The Mazar, Herat, and Shomali valley offensives displaced more than three-quarters of a million civilians, using " scorched earth " tactics to prevent them from supplying the enemy with aid.
Taliban decision-makers, particularly Mullah Omar, seldom if ever talked directly to non-Muslim foreigners, so aid providers had to deal with intermediaries whose approvals and agreements were often reversed.
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When the UN increased the number of Muslim women staff to satisfy Taliban demands, the Taliban then required all female Muslim UN staff traveling to Afghanistan to be chaperoned by a mahram or a blood relative. We Muslims believe God the Almighty will feed everybody one way or another. If the foreign NGOs leave then it is their decision.
We have not expelled them. Since the creation of the Taliban, the ISI and the Pakistani military have given financial, logistical and military support. According to Pakistani Afghanistan expert Ahmed Rashi "between an an estimated 80, toPakistanis trained and fought in Afghanistan" on the side of the Taliban. Duringaccording to several international sources, 28, Pakistani nationals, 14, Afghan Taliban and 2,-3, Al-Qaeda militants were fighting against anti-Taliban forces in Afghanistan as a roughly 45, strong military force.
Of the estimated 28, Pakistani nationals fighting in Afghanistan, 8, were militants recruited in madrassas filling regular Taliban ranks. The document further states that the parents of those Pakistani nationals "know nothing regarding their child's military involvement with the Taliban until their bodies are brought back to Pakistan". Of all the foreign powers involved in efforts to sustain and manipulate the ongoing fighting [in Afghanistan], Pakistan is distinguished both by the sweep of its objectives and the scale of its efforts, which include soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and Dostum has said the reason the attack was successful was due to Pakistani commandos taking part and that the Pakistani air force also gave support.
InIran accused Pakistan of sending its air force to bomb Mazar-i-Sharif in support of Taliban forces and directly accused Pakistani troops for "war crimes at Bamiyan ". The same year, Russia said Pakistan was responsible for the "military expansion" of the Taliban in northern Afghanistan by sending large numbers of Pakistani troops, some of whom had subsequently been taken as prisoners by the anti-Taliban United Front.
Duringthe UN Security Council imposed an arms embargo against military support to the Taliban, with UN officials explicitly singling out Pakistan.
The UN secretary-general implicitly criticized Pakistan for its military support and the Security Council stated it was "deeply distress[ed] over reports of involvement in the fighting, on the Taliban side, of thousands of non-Afghan nationals". In Julyseveral countries, including the United States, accused Pakistan of being "in violation of U.
The Taliban also obtained financial resources from Pakistan. The role of the Pakistani military has been described by international observers as well as by the anti-Taliban leader Ahmad Shah Massoud as a "creeping invasion". Ahmad Shah Massoud and Abdul Rashid Dostumformer enemies, created the United Front Northern Alliance against the Taliban that were preparing offensives against the remaining areas under the control of Massoud and those under the control of Dostum.
After longstanding battles, especially for the northern city of Mazar-i-SharifAbdul Rashid Dostum and his Junbish forces were defeated by the Taliban and their allies in Dostum subsequently went into exile. Ahmad Shah Massoud remained the only major anti-Taliban leader inside Afghanistan who was able to defend vast parts of his territory against the Taliban. In the areas under his control Massoud set up democratic institutions and signed the Women's Rights Declaration. In the area of Massoud, women and girls did not have to wear the Afghan burqa.
They were allowed to work and to go to school. In at least two known instances, Massoud personally intervened against cases of forced marriage.
It is our conviction and we believe that both men and women are created by the Almighty. Both have equal rights. Women can pursue an education, women can pursue a career, and women can play a role in society - just like men. Massoud is adamant that in Afghanistan women have suffered oppression for generations. He says that "the cultural environment of the country suffocates women.
But the Taliban exacerbate this with oppression. Afghan traditions would need a generation or more to overcome and could only be challenged by education, he said. Humayun Tandar, who took part as an Afghan diplomat in the International Conference on Afghanistan in Bonn, said that "strictures of language, ethnicity, region were [also] stifling for Massoud. That is why Please, tell us the prayer before lunch or dinner in your own language.
Human Rights Watch cites no human rights crimes for the forces under direct control of Massoud for the period from October until the assassination of Massoud in September The Taliban repeatedly offered Massoud a position of power to make him stop his resistance. Massoud declined. He explained in one interview:. The Taliban say: "Come and accept the post of prime minister and be with us", and they would keep the highest office in the country, the presidentship.
But at what cost?! The difference between us concerns mainly our way of thinking about the very principles of the society and the state. We can not accept their conditions of compromise, or else we would have to give up the principles of modern democracy.
We are fundamentally against the system called "the Emirate of Afghanistan". The United Front in its Proposals for Peace demanded the Taliban to join a political process leading towards nationwide democratic elections.
In earlyMassoud employed a new strategy of local military pressure and global political appeals. Resentment was increasingly gathering against Taliban rule from the bottom of Afghan society, including the Pashtun areas. Massoud publicized their cause of "popular consensus, general elections and democracy" worldwide.
At the same time he was very wary not to revive the failed Kabul government of the early s. Already inhe started the training of police forces which he trained specifically in order to keep order and protect the civilian population in case the United Front would be successful.
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The Taliban are not a force to be considered invincible. They are distanced from the people now. They are weaker than in the past. There is only the assistance given by Pakistan, Osama bin Laden and other extremist groups that keep the Taliban on their feet. With a halt to that assistance, it is extremely difficult to survive. From onwards, a renewed process was set into motion by the Tajik Ahmad Shah Massoud and the Pashtun Abdul Haq to unite all the ethnicities of Afghanistan.
While Massoud united the Tajiks, Hazara and Uzbeks as well as some Pashtun commanders under his United Front command, the famed Pashtun commander Abdul Haq received increasing numbers of defecting Pashtun Taliban as "Taliban popularity trended downward". Both agreed to work together with the exiled Afghan king Zahir Shah. International officials who met with representatives of the new alliance, which Pulitzer Prize winner Steve Coll referred to as the "grand Pashtun-Tajik alliance", said, "It's crazy that you have this today Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazara They were all ready to buy in to the process Haq, Massoud, and Karzai, Afghanistan's three leading moderates, could transcend the Pashtun-non-Pashtun, north-south divide.
In lateMassoud officially brought together this new alliance in a meeting in Northern Afghanistan to discuss, among other things, "a Loya Jirga, or a traditional council of elders, to settle political turmoil in Afghanistan". That part of the Pashtun-Tajik-Hazara-Uzbek peace plan did eventually materialize. An account of the meeting by author and journalist Sebastian Junger says: "Inwhen I was there I happened to be there in a very interesting time.
Massoud brought together Afghan leaders from all ethnic groups. He brought them all into the northern area where he was. He held a council of One was Hamid Karzai; I did not have any idea who he would end up being". In earlyAhmad Shah Massoud with ethnic leaders from all of Afghanistan addressed the European Parliament in Brussels asking the international community to provide humanitarian help to the people of Afghanistan.
He stated that the Taliban and Al-Qaeda had introduced "a very wrong perception of Islam " and that without the support of Pakistan and Bin Laden the Taliban would not be able to sustain their military campaign for up to a year.
On this visit to Europe he also warned that his intelligence had gathered information about a large-scale attack on US soil being imminent. The president of the European Parliament, Nicole Fontainecalled him the "pole of liberty in Afghanistan".
On 9 SeptemberMassoud, then aged 48, was the target of a suicide attack by two Arabs posing as journalists at Khwaja Bahauddin, in the Takhar Province of Afghanistan.
Massoud, who had survived countless assassination attempts over a period of 26 years, died in a helicopter taking him to a hospital. The first attempt on Massoud's life had been carried out by Hekmatyar and two Pakistani ISI agents inwhen Massoud was only 22 years old. In earlyAl-Qaeda would-be assassins were captured by Massoud's forces while trying to enter his territory.
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The assassination of Massoud is believed to have a connection to the September 11 attacks on US soil, which killed nearly people, and which appeared to be the terrorist attack that Massoud had warned against in his speech to the European Parliament several months earlier.
John P. On 10 SeptemberO'Neill told two of his friends, "We're due. And we're due for something big. Some things have happened in Afghanistan. I sense a shift, and I think things are going to happen From October to Decemberthe United Front gained control of much of the country and played a crucial role in establishing the post-Taliban interim government under Hamid Karzai. Bushspeaking to a joint session of Congress, tentatively blamed Al-Qaeda for the 11 September attacks, stating that the "leadership of Al Qaeda ha[d] great influence in Afghanistan and support[ed] the Taliban regime in controlling most of that country".
Bush said, "We condemn the Taliban regime", and went on to state, "Tonight the United States of America makes the following demands on the Taliban", which he said were "not open to negotiation or discussion":. The US petitioned the international community to back a military campaign to overthrow the Taliban.
The UN issued two resolutions on terrorism after the 11 September attacks. The resolutions called on all states to "[increase] cooperation and full implementation of the relevant international conventions relating to terrorism" and specified consensus recommendations for all countries.
The Taliban ambassador to Pakistan, Abdul Salem Zaeef, responded to the ultimatum by demanding "convincing evidence" that Bin Laden was involved in the attacks, stating "our position is that if America has evidence and proof, they should produce it".
Additionally, the Taliban insisted that any trial of Bin Laden be held in an Afghan court. Zaeef also claimed that "4, Jews working in the Trade Center had prior knowledge of the suicide missions, and 'were absent on that day'. On 4 October, the Taliban agreed to turn bin Laden over to Pakistan for trial in an international tribunal that operated according to Islamic Sharia law, but Pakistan blocked the offer as it was not possible to guarantee his safety.
On 7 October, the Taliban ambassador to Pakistan offered to detain bin Laden and try him under Islamic law if the US made a formal request and presented the Taliban with evidence.
A Bush administration official, speaking on condition of anonymity, rejected the Taliban offer, and stated that the US would not negotiate their demands. The United Front Northern Alliance and SAD and Special Forces combined to overthrow the Taliban with minimal coalition casualties, and without the use of international conventional ground forces. The Washington Post stated in an editorial by John Lehman in What made the Afghan campaign a landmark in the US Military's history is that it was prosecuted by Special Operations forces from all the services, along with Navy and Air Force tactical power, operations by the Afghan Northern Alliance and the CIA were equally important and fully integrated.
No large Army or Marine force was employed. On 14 October, the Taliban offered to discuss handing over Osama bin Laden to a neutral country in return for a bombing halt, but only if the Taliban were given evidence of bin Laden's involvement. In Novemberbefore the capture of Kunduz by United Front troops under the command of Mohammad Daud Dau thousands of top commanders and regular fighters of the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence agents and military personnel, and other volunteers and sympathizers in the Kunduz airliftdubbed the Airlift of Evil by US military forces around Kunduz and subsequently used as a term in media reports, were evacuated and airlifted out of Kunduz by Pakistan Army cargo aircraft to Pakistan Air Force air bases in Chitral and Gilgit in Pakistan's Northern Areas.
On the night of 12 November, the Taliban retreated south from Kabul. On 15 November, they released eight Western aid workers after three months in captivity. By 13 November, the Taliban had withdrawn from both Kabul and Jalalabad.
Finally, in early December, the Taliban gave up Kandahartheir last stronghold, dispersing without surrendering. The United States has conducted targeted killings against Taliban leaders, mainly using Special Forcesand sometimes unmanned aerial vehicles.
British forces also used similar tactics, mostly in Helmand ProvinceAfghanistan. During Operation HerrickBritish special forces assassinated at least fifty high and local Taliban commanders in targeted killings in Helmand Province. The Taliban also used targeted killings. In alone, they killed notable anti-Taliban leaders, such as former Afghan President Burhanuddin Rabbanithe police chief in northern Afghanistan, the commander of the elite anti-Taliban Pamir Corps, Mohammad Daud Dau and the police chief of Kunduz, Abdul Rahman Saidkhaili.
All of them belonged to the Massoud faction of the United Front. According to Guantanamo Bay charge sheets, the United States Department of Defense believes the Taliban may maintain a man undercover unit called "Jihad Kandahar", which is used for undercover operationsincluding targeted killings.
After the attacks of 11 September on the United StatesPakistan has been accused of continuing to support the Taliban, an allegation Pakistan denies.
military jokes and humor section is a collection of miltary humor, military jokes. U.S. military intelligence assessments dating back to suggest Iran's elite paramilitary unit, the Quds Force, has track record of providing training and lethal arms to the Taliban. The list. Taliban, ultraconservative political and religious faction that emerged in Afghanistan in the mids following the withdrawal of Soviet troops, the collapse of Afghanistan's communist regime, and the subsequent breakdown in civil order.
With the fall of Kabul to anti-Taliban forces in NovemberISI forces worked with and helped Taliban militias who were in full retreat. Former Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf wrote in his memoirs that Richard Armitagethe former US deputy secretary of state, said Pakistan would be "bombed back to the stone-age" if it continued to support the Taliban, although Armitage has since denied using the "stone age" phrase.
The Taliban (Pashto: ?????? ?, ?aliban "students") or Taleban, who refer to themselves as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), are a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement and military organization in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country. Since , the Taliban's leader is Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada. Reports of deep Iran-Taliban relations dating back to June indicate how the Obama administration turned a blind eye to this very troubling phenomenon, most likely to not at all push Iran into. Jun 01, One was a Taliban insurgent, killed fighting the US marines. One was Khadija, 18, has married three brothers in a family torn by the Afghan war | - fatgirlnmotion.com.
In May and Junehigh Taliban officials proclaimed the Taliban regrouped and ready for guerrilla war to expel US forces from Afghanistan. On 29 Maywhile according to American website The Spokesman-Review Afghanistan faced "a mounting threat from armed Taliban fighters in the countryside", a US military truck of a convoy in Kabul lost control and plowed into twelve civilian vehicles, killing one and injuring six people.
The surrounding crowd got angry and a riot arose, lasting all day ending with 20 dead and injured. When stone-throwing and gunfire had come from a crowd of some men, the US troops had used their weapons "to defend themselves" while leaving the scene, a US military spokesman said.
A correspondent for the Financial Times in Kabul suggested that this was the outbreak of "a ground swell of resentment" and "growing hostility to foreigners" that had been growing and building sinceand may also have been triggered by a US air strike a week earlier in southern Afghanistan killing 30 civilians, where she assumed that "the Taliban had been sheltering in civilian houses".
The continued support from tribal and other groups in Pakistan, the drug trade, and the small number of NATO forces, combined with the long history of resistance and isolation, indicated that Taliban forces and leaders were surviving.
Suicide attacks and other terrorist methods not used in became more common. Observers suggested that poppy eradication, which hurts the livelihoods of those Afghans who have resorted to their production, and civilian deaths caused by airstrikes abetted the resurgence.
These observers maintained that policy should focus on "hearts and minds" and on economic reconstructionwhich could profit from switching from interdicting to diverting poppy production-to make medicine. Other commentators viewed Islamabad's shift from war to diplomacy as an effort to appease growing discontent.
Most post-invasion Taliban fighters were new recruits, mostly drawn from local madrasas. In DecemberAsia Times Online reported that the Taliban had offered to give the US "legal guarantees" that it would not allow Afghanistan to be used for attacks on other countries, and that the US had given no response.
In Augustreacting to a hostile speech of US President Trumpa Taliban spokesman retorted that the Taliban would keep fighting to free Afghanistan of "American invaders". According to a page report by the United Nationsthe Taliban, while trying to consolidate control over northern and western Afghanistan, committed systematic massacres against civilians.
UN officials stated that there had been "15 massacres" between and They also said, that "[t]hese have been highly systematic and they all lead back to the [Taliban] Ministry of Defense or to Mullah Omar himself. The documents also reveal the role of Arab and Pakistani support troops in these killings. Bin Laden's so-called Brigade was responsible for mass-killings of Afghan civilians.
The report by the United Nations quotes "eyewitnesses in many villages describing Arab fighters carrying long knives used for slitting throats and skinning people".
The Taliban's former ambassador to Pakistan, Mullah Abdul Salam Zaeef, in late stated that cruel behaviour under and by the Taliban had been "necessary".
Inthe United Nations accused the Taliban of denying emergency food by the UN's World Food Programme tohungry and starving people "for political and military reasons". On 8 August the Taliban launched an attack on Mazar-i Sharif. Of defenders only survived the engagement. Once in control the Taliban began to kill people indiscriminately.
At first shooting people in the street, they soon began to target Hazaras. Women were raped, and thousands of people were locked in containers and left to suffocate.
This ethnic cleansing left an estimated 5, to 6, dead. At this time ten Iranian diplomats and a journalist were killed. Iran assumed the Taliban had murdered them, and mobilized its army, deploying men along the border with Afghanistan. By the middle of September there wereIranian personnel stationed on the border. Pakistan mediated and the bodies were returned to Tehran towards the end of the month.
They burned orchards, crops and destroyed irrigation systems, and forced more thanpeople from their homes with hundreds of men, women and children still unaccounted for. In a major effort to retake the Shomali Plains to the north of Kabul from the United Front, the Taliban indiscriminately killed civilians, while uprooting and expelling the population. Among others, Kamal Hossein, a special reporter for the UN, reported on these and other war crimes.
In Istalifa town famous for handmade potteries and which was home to more than 45, people, the Taliban gave 24 hours' notice to the population to leave, then completely razed the town leaving the people destitute. In the town of Bamian was taken, hundreds of men, women and children were executed. Houses were razed and some were used for forced labor. There was a further massacre at the town of Yakaolang in January An estimated people were murdered, along with two delegations of Hazara elders who had tried to intercede.
Bythe Taliban had forced hundreds of thousands of people from the Shomali Plains and other regions conducting a policy of scorched earth burning homes, farm land and gardens. Several Taliban and al-Qaeda commanders ran a network of human trafficking, abducting women and selling them into sex slavery in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The behavior of the Taliban during the six years they expanded their rule in Afghanistan made a mockery of that claim. The targets for human trafficking were especially women from the Tajik, Uzbek, Hazara and other ethnic groups in Afghanistan. Some women preferred to commit suicide over slavery, killing themselves. During one Taliban and al-Qaeda offensive in in the Shomali Plains alone, more than women were kidnapped.
There, according to eyewitnesses, the women were penned up inside Sar Shahi camp in the desert. The more desirable among them were selected and taken away.
Some were trucked to Peshawar with the apparent complicity of Pakistani border guards. Others were taken to Khost, where bin Laden had several training camps.
Not all Taliban commanders engaged in human trafficking. Many Taliban were opposed to the human trafficking operations conducted by al-Qaeda and other Taliban commanders.
Nuruludah, a Taliban commander, is quoted as saying that in the Shomali Plains, he and 10 of his men freed some women who were being abducted by Pakistani members of al-Qaeda. In Jalalabad, local Taliban commanders freed women that were being held by Arab members of al-Qaeda in a camp.
To PHR's knowledge, no other regime in the world has methodically and violently forced half of its population into virtual house arrestprohibiting them on pain of physical punishment.
The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal repression of women. In Laura Bush in a radio address condemned the Taliban's brutality to women. In areas they controlled the Taliban issued edicts which forbade women from being educated, girls were forced to leave schools and colleges. Those who wished to leave their home to go shopping had to be accompanied by a male relative, and were required to wear the burqaa traditional dress covering the entire body except for a small screen to see out of.
Those who appeared to disobey were publicly beaten. Sohaila, a young woman who was convicted of walking with a man who was not a relative, was charged with adultery. She was publicly flogged in Ghazi Stadium and received lashes.
The religious police routinely carried out inhumane abuse on women.
Employment for women was restricted to the medical sector, because male medical personnel were not allowed to treat women and girls. One result of the banning of employment of women by the Taliban was the closing down in places like Kabul of primary schools not only for girls but for boys, because almost all the teachers there were women. Taliban restrictions became more severe after they took control of the capital. In Februaryreligious police forced all women off the streets of Kabul, and issued new regulations ordering people to blacken their windows, so that women would not be visible from the outside.
According to Human Rights Watchthe Taliban's bombings and other attacks which have led to civilian casualties "sharply escalated in " when "at least Afghan civilians were killed in at least armed attacks, most of which appear to have been intentionally launched at non-combatants.
The high number of civilians killed by the Taliban is blamed in part on their increasing use of improvised explosive devices IEDs"for instance, 16 IEDs have been planted in girls' schools" by the Taliban.
InColonel Richard Kempformerly Commander of British forces in Afghanistan and the intelligence coordinator for the British government, drew parallels between the tactics and strategy of Hamas in Gaza to those of the Taliban. Kemp wrote:. Like Hamas in Gaza, the Taliban in southern Afghanistan are masters at shielding themselves behind the civilian population and then melting in among them for protection. Women and children are trained and equipped to fight, collect intelligence, and ferry arms and ammunition between battles.
Female suicide bombers are increasingly common. The use of women to shield gunmen as they engage NATO forces is now so normal it is deemed barely worthy of comment. Schools and houses are routinely booby-trapped. Snipers shelter in houses deliberately filled with women and children. Taliban between and several times claimed to have assassinated Western and Afghani medical or aid workers in Afghanistan, either for fear of the vaccination of children against polioor for suspicion that the 'medical workers' were in truth spies, or for suspecting them to be proselytizing Christianity.
Taliban claimed to have killed them because they were foreign spies. Taliban claimed they killed her because her organisation "was preaching Christianity in Afghanistan". The victims were six Americans, one Briton, one German and two Afghanis, working for self-proclaimed "non-profit, Christian organization" called 'International Assistance Mission'. Taliban said they murdered them because of proselytizing Christianity, having Bibles translated in Dari language in their possession when they were encountered.
IAM contended afterwards that they "were not missionaries". In Decemberunidentified gunmen killed four female UN polio-workers in Karachi in Pakistan; Western news media suggested a connection with the outspoken Taliban objections against and suspicions about such 'polio vaccinations'. During the Taliban rule ofthey banned many recreational activities and games, such as football, kite flying, and chess. General entertainment such as televisions, cinemas, music, VCRs and satellite dishes were also banned.
Islam portal. The Taliban's ideology has been described as an "innovative form of sharia combining Pashtun tribal codes," or Pashtunwaliwith radical Deobandi interpretations of Islam favored by JUI and its splinter groups. Also contributing to the mix was the militant Islamism and extremist jihadism of Osama bin Laden. According to journalist Ahmed Rashi at least in the first years of their rule, the Taliban adopted Deobandi and Islamist anti-nationalist beliefs, and opposed "tribal and feudal structures," eliminating traditional tribal or feudal leaders from leadership roles.
The Taliban strictly enforced their ideology in major cities like HeratKabuland Kandahar. But in rural areas the Taliban had little direct control, and promoted village jirgasso it did not enforce its ideology as stringently in rural areas. The Taliban regime interpreted the Sharia law in accordance with the Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence and the religious edicts of Mullah Omar. The Taliban emphasized dreams as a means of revelation. Along with Shiite Muslims, the small Christian community was also persecuted by the Taliban.
The Taliban were averse to debating doctrine with other Muslims. The Taliban frequently used the pre-Islamic Pashtun tribal code, Pashtunwaliin deciding certain social matters. Such is the case with the Pashtun practice of dividing inheritances equally among sons, even though the Qur'an clearly states that women are to receive one-half a man's share.
According to Ali A. Jalali and Lester Grau, the Taliban "received extensive support from Pashtuns across the country who thought that the movement might restore their national dominance. Even Pashtun intellectuals in the West, who differed with the Taliban on many issues, expressed support for the movement on purely ethnic grounds. InMullah Omar issued a decree protecting the Buddha statues at Bamyantwo 6th-century monumental statues of standing buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan.
But in Marchthe statues were destroyed by the Taliban of Mullah Omar, following a decree stating: "all the statues around Afghanistan must be destroyed. Yahya Massoud, brother of the anti-Taliban and resistance leader Ahmad Shah Massou recalls the following incident after the destruction of the Buddha statues at Bamyan:. It was the spring of I was in Afghanistan's Panjshir Valley, together with my brother Ahmad Shah Massou the leader of the Afghan resistance against the Taliban, and Bismillah Khan, who currently serves as Afghanistan's interior minister.
One of our commanders, Commandant Momin, wanted us to see 30 Taliban fighters who had been taken hostage after a gun battle. My brother agreed to meet them. I remember that his first question concerned the centuries-old Buddha statues that were dynamited by the Taliban in March of that year, shortly before our encounter. Two Taliban combatants from Kandahar confidently responded that worshiping anything outside of Islam was unacceptable and that therefore these statues had to be destroyed.
My brother looked at them and said, this time in Pashto, 'There are still many sun- worshippers in this country. Will you also try to get rid of the sun and drop darkness over the Earth? The Taliban ideology was not static. Before its capture of Kabul, members of the Taliban talked about stepping aside once a government of "good Muslims" took power and law and order were restored.
The decision making process of the Taliban in Kandahar was modeled on the Pashtun tribal council jirgatogether with what was believed to be the early Islamic model. Discussion was followed by a building of a consensus by the believers.
As the Taliban's power grew, decisions were made by Mullah Omar without consulting the jirga and without Omar's visits to other parts of the country. He visited the capital, Kabul, only twice while in power. Taliban spokesman Mullah Wakil explained:. Decisions are based on the advice of the Amir-ul Momineen. For us consultation is not necessary.
We believe that this is in line with the Sharia. We abide by the Amir's view even if he alone takes this view.
There will not be a head of state. Instead there will be an Amir al-Mu'minin. Mullah Omar will be the highest authority and the government will not be able to implement any decision to which he does not agree. General elections are incompatible with Sharia and therefore we reject them.
Another evolution of Taliban ideology was Mullah Omar decree calling for the protection of the Buddha statues at Bamyan and the March destruction of them.
The author Ahmed Rashid suggests that the devastation and hardship of the Soviet invasion and the following period influenced Taliban ideology. The refugee students, brought up in a totally male society, not only had no education in mathematics, science, history or geography, but also had no traditional skills of farming, herdingor handicraft -making, nor even knowledge of their tribal and clan lineages.
Dominating women simply affirmed manhood. For their leadership, rigid fundamentalism was a matter not only of principle, but also of political survival.
Taliban leaders "repeatedly told" Rashid that "if they gave women greater freedom or a chance to go to school, they would lose the support of their rank and file. The Taliban have been criticized for their strictness toward those who disobeyed their imposed rules, and Mullah Omar 's taking of the title of Amir al-Mu'minin.
Mullah Omar was criticised for calling himself Amir al-Mu'minin on the grounds that he lacked scholarly learning, tribal pedigree, or connections to the Prophet's family. Sanction for the title traditionally required the support of all of the country's ulemawhereas only some 1, Pashtun Taliban-supporting Mullahs had declared Omar the Amir. According to Ahmed Rashid, "no Afghan had adopted the title sincewhen King Dost Mohammed Khan assumed the title before he declared jihad against the Sikh kingdom in Peshawar.
But Dost Mohammed was fighting foreigners, while Omar had declared jihad against other Afghans. The Kharijites were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach to takfirwhereby they declared other Muslims to be unbelievers and therefore deemed them worthy of death. In particular the Taliban have been accused of takfir towards Shia.
After the August slaughter of mostly Shia Hazaras non-combatants at Mazar-i-Sharif, Mullah Niazi, the Taliban commander of the attack and the new governor of Mazar, declared from Mazar's central mosque:. Last year you rebelled against us and killed us. From all your homes you shot at us. Now we are here to deal with you. The Hazaras are not Muslims and now have to kill Hazaras. You either accept to be Muslims or leave Afghanistan. Wherever you go we will catch you. If you go up we will pull you down by your feet; if you hide below, we will pull you up by your hair.
Until his death inMullah Mohammed Omar was the supreme commander of the Taliban. Mullah Akhtar Mansour was elected as his replacement inand following Mansour's killing in a May US drone strike, Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada became the group's leader.
The Taliban initially enjoyed goodwill from Afghans weary of the warlords' corruption, brutality, and incessant fighting. De facto the areas under its direct control were mainly Afghanistan's major cities and highways.
Tribal khans and warlords had de facto direct control over various small towns, villages, and rural areas. Rashid described the Taliban government as "a secret society run by Kandaharis The Sharia does not allow politics or political parties. That is why we give no salaries to officials or soldiers, just food, clothes, shoes, and weapons. We want to live a life like the Prophet lived years ago, and jihad is our right.
We want to recreate the time of the Prophet, and we are only carrying out what the Afghan people have wanted for the past 14 years. They modeled their decision-making process on the Pashtun tribal council jirgatogether with what they believed to be the early Islamic model.
Discussion was followed by a building of a consensus by the "believers". As the Taliban's power grew, decisions were made by Mullah Omar without consulting the jirga and without consulting other parts of the country. Instead of an election, their leader's legitimacy came from an oath of allegiance " Bay'ah "in imitation of the Prophet and the first four Caliphs.
On 4 AprilMullah Omar had "the Cloak of the Prophet Mohammed" taken from its shrine for the first time in 60 years.
Wrapping himself in the relic, he appeared on the roof of a building in the center of Kandahar while hundreds of Pashtun mullahs below shouted " Amir al-Mu'minin!
Mullah Omar will be the highest authority, and the government will not be able to implement any decision to which he does not agree. In local government, such as Kabul city council or Herat, Taliban loyalists, not locals, dominated, even when the Pashto -speaking Taliban could not communicate with the roughly half of the population who spoke Dari or other non-Pashtun tongues.
Consistent with the governance of early Muslims was the absence of state institutions or "a methodology for command and control" that is standard today even among non-Westernized states. The Taliban did not issue press releases, policy statements, or hold regular press conferences. The outside world and most Afghans did not even know what their leaders looked like, since photography was banned. Cabinet ministers and deputies were mullahs with a " madrasah education.
Military reverses that trapped them behind lines or led to their deaths increased the chaos in the national administration. The Ministry of Finance had neither a budget nor "qualified economist or banker. According to the testimony of Guantanamo captives before their Combatant Status Review Tribunalsthe Taliban, in addition to conscripting men to serve as soldiers, also conscripted men to staff its civil service.
The Kabul money markets responded positively during the first weeks of the Taliban occupation But the Afghani soon fell in value. Under the Transit treaty between Afghanistan and Pakistan a massive network for smuggling developed. It had an estimated turnover of 2. These operations along with the trade from the Golden Crescent financed the war in Afghanistan and also had the side effect of destroying start up industries in Pakistan. Ahmed Rashid also explained that the Afghan Transit Trade agreed on by Pakistan was "the largest official source of revenue for the Taliban.
Between and Mullah Omar reversed his opinions on the drug trade, apparently as it only harmed kafirs. Taxes on opium exports became one of the mainstays of Taliban income and their war economy. According to Rashid, "drug money funded the weapons, ammunition and fuel for the war.
In an economic sense it seems he had little choice, as the war of attrition continued with the Northern Alliance the income from continued opium production was all that prevented the country from starvation. At this juncture Omar passed a decree banning the cultivation of opium, and production dropped to an estimated 74 metric tonnes from poppy cultivation on 1, hectares.
Many observers say the ban - which came in a bid for international recognition at the United Nations - was only issued in order to raise opium prices and increase profit from the sale of large existing stockpiles. The trafficking of accumulated stocks by the Taliban continued in and Inthe UN mentioned the "existence of significant stocks of opiates accumulated during previous years of bumper harvests.
There was also an environmental toll to the country, heavy deforestation from the illegal trade in timber with hundreds of acres of pine and cedar forests in Kunar Province and Paktya being cleared.
Throughout the country millions of acres were denuded to supply timber to the Pakistani markets, with no attempt made at reforestation, which has led to significant environmental damage. Bywhen the Afghan Interim Administration took power the country's infrastructure was in ruins, Telecommunications had failed, the road network was destroyed and Ministry of Finance buildings were in such a state of disrepair some were on the verge of collapse.
On 6 July then president Bill Clinton signed into effect executive order On 19 December UN resolution was passed. It called for all assets to be frozen and for all states to close any offices belonging to the Taliban. This included the offices of Ariana Afghan Airlines. In the UN had passed resolution which had banned all international flights by Ariana apart from preapproved humanitarian missions.
Donors in Saudi Arabia constitute the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide. The other nations, including the United Nationsrecognized the government of the Islamic State of Afghanistan - parts of whom were part of the United Front, also called Northern Alliance as the legitimate government of Afghanistan. Regarding its relations with the rest of the world, the Taliban's Emirate of Afghanistan held a policy of isolationism : "The Taliban believe in non-interference in the affairs of other countries and similarly desire no outside interference in their country's internal affairs".
Canada has designated the Taliban as a terrorist group. While China has been supporting the new government in Kabul both financially and politically, it is believed to have unofficial relations with the Taliban Government according to Malek Setiz, international relations adviser to the Foreign Ministry of Afghanistan.
India did not recognize the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and instead maintained close strategic and military ties with the Northern Alliance so as to contain the rise of Taliban during the s. India was one of the closest allies of former Afghan president Mohammad Najibullah and strongly condemned his public execution by the Taliban. Pakistan and Kashmir-based militant groups thought to have ties with the Taliban have historically been involved in the Kashmir insurgency targeted against Indian security forces.
The Taliban moved its militias near the hijacked aircraft, supposedly to prevent Indian special forces from storming the aircraft, and stalled the negotiations between India and the hijackers for days. The New York Times later reported that there were credible links between the hijackers and the Taliban.
As a part of the deal to free the plane, India released three militants. The Taliban gave a safe passage to the hijackers and the released militants. Following the hijacking, India drastically increased its efforts to help Massoud, providing an arms depot in DushanbeTajikistan. India also provided a wide range of high-altitude warfare equipment, helicopter technicians, medical services, and tactical advice. India extensively supported the new administration in Afghanistan, leading several reconstruction projects and by had emerged as the country's largest regional donor.
In the wake of terrorist attacks in Indiathere have been growing concerns about fundamentalist organisations such as the Taliban seeking to expand their activities into India. During the ICC Cricket World Cup which was co-hosted in India, Pakistani Interior Minister Rehman Malik and Interpol chief Ronald Noble revealed that a terrorist bid to disrupt the tournament had been foiled; following a conference with Noble, Malik said that the Taliban had begun to base their activities in India with reports from neighboring countries exposing their activities in the country and a Sri Lankan terrorist planning to target cricketers was arrested in Colombo.
Inthe Times of India called for India to reassess its Taliban threat. InTaliban said that they want to have cordial relations with India, and praised India for resisting the U. Inthe Taliban described the Kashmir conflict as a "domestic issue of other countries" that the movement did not seek to interfere in, reversing its past ardent opposition to Indian presence in Kashmir. Iran has historically been an enemy of the Taliban.
In early Augustafter attacking the city of Mazar-i-SharifTaliban forces killed several thousand civilians [ citation needed ] and 11 Iranian diplomats and intelligence officers in the Iranian consulate.
Alleged radio intercepts indicate Mullah Omar personally approved the killings. We did interdict a shipment, without question the Revolutionary Guard 's core Quds Forcethrough a known Taliban facilitator. Three of the individuals were killed Iranians certainly view as making life more difficult for us if Afghanistan is unstable.
We don't have that kind of relationship with the Iranians. That's why I am particularly troubled by the interception of weapons coming from Iran. But we know that it's more than weapons; it's money; it's also according to some reports, training at Iranian camps as well. There are several sources as well stating the relationship between the Taliban and Iran in recent years.
This said to occur from leadership change in the Taliban itself, with Akhtar Mansoor particularly seeking to improve ties with Iran. In Januarythe Taliban condemned the U. Human Rights Watch writes, "Pakistani aircraft assisted with troop rotations of Taliban forces during combat operations in late and Author Ahmed Rashid claims that the Taliban had "ufatgirlnmotion.comecedented access" among Pakistan's lobbies and interest groups.
He also writes that they at times were able to "play off one lobby against another and extend their influence in Pakistan even further". After the attacks of 11 Septemberand the US operation in Afghanistan the Afghan Taliban leadership is claimed to have fled to Pakistan where they regrouped and created several shuras to coordinate their insurgency in Afghanistan. Froma report by a leading British institution also claimed that Pakistan's intelligence service still today has a strong link with the Taliban in Afghanistan.
It said the ISI provides funding and training for the Taliban, and that the agency has representatives on the so-called Quetta Shurathe Taliban's leadership council. It is alleged that the Quetta Shura is exiled in Quetta. The report, based on interviews with Taliban commanders in Afghanistan, was written by Matt Waldman, a fellow at Harvard University.
Jul 14, Today, the U.S. is engaged with the Taliban through its envoy, Zalmay Khalilzad. Khalilzad is a Pashtun, as are the overwhelming majority of the fatgirlnmotion.com: Akram Gizabi. So if you have an online relationship with a soldier, and he has not requested money yet, it does not necessarily mean he's legitimate, it might just mean that the criminal is taking his time. Running a dating background check at the beginning of your online relationship will definitely give you an answer. On two crucial issues - respect for women's rights and recognition of Afghanistan's U.S.-backed government in Kabul - Shaheen either hewed to Taliban policies dating back decades before.
The report also linked high-level members of the Pakistani government with the Taliban. It said Asif Ali Zardarithe Pakistani president, met with senior Taliban prisoners in and promised to release them. Zardari reportedly told the detainees they were only arrested because of American pressure. Amrullah Salehthe former director of Afghanistan's intelligence service, told Reuters that the ISI was "part of a landscape of destruction in this country".
Pakistan, at least up tohas always strongly denied all links with Taliban. In this operation hardcore terrorists had been killed while 45 hideouts and 2 bomb making factories of terrorists were destroyed in North Waziristan Agency as the operation continues.
Qatar inwith the approval of the US and the Afghan government, allowed the Afghan Taliban to set up a diplomatic and political office inside the country. Ahmed Rashi writing in the Financial Timesstated that through the office Qatar has facilitated meetings between the Taliban and many countries and organisations, including the US state department, the UN, Japan, several European governments and non-governmental organisations, all of whom have been trying to push forward the idea of peace talks.
In JulySaudi Arabiaat the time in severe conflict with Qatar, without corroboration alleged Qatar to support terrorism including Taliban "armed terrorists". In Septemberthe presidents of both the United States and Afghanistan demanded Qatar to close down the office of the Taliban. According to the agreement, the Taliban will cut all its connections with Al-Qaeda and begin peace negotiations with the Afghani Government. In return the United States will begin the withdrawal of its troops. They will have withdrawn all its troops in 14 months.
Russia has been accused of arming the Taliban by multiple politicians including Rex Tillerson and the Afghan government. In JuneU. The United Kingdom took operational responsibility for Helmand Provincea major poppy-growing province in southern Afghanistan, deploying troops there in mid, and encountered resistance by re-formed Taliban forces allegedly entering Afghanistan from Pakistan.
The Taliban turned towards the use of improvised explosive devices. During the United Kingdom announced plans to pay Taliban fighters to switch sides or lay down arms; the proceeding year the UK government supported negotiations with the Taliban. The United States never recognized the Taliban government in Afghanistan.
Ahmed Rashid states that the US indirectly supported the Taliban through its ally in Pakistan between and because Washington viewed the Taliban as anti- Iraniananti- Shia and potentially pro-Western. Washington furthermore hoped that the Taliban would support development planned by the US-based oil company Unocal.
For example, it made no comment when the Taliban captured Herat inand expelled thousands of girls from schools. One day before the August capture of Mazar, bin Laden affiliates bombed two US embassies in Africa, killing and wounding 4, mostly Africans. The US responded by launching cruise missiles on suspected terrorist camps in Afghanistan, killing over 20 though failing to kill bin Laden or even many Al-Qaeda.
Saudi Arabia expelled the Taliban envoy in protest over the refusal to turn over bin Laden, and after Mullah Omar allegedly insulted the Saudi royal family. In mid-October the UN Security Council voted unanimously to ban commercial aircraft flights to and from Afghanistan, and freeze its bank accounts worldwide.
Adjusting its counterinsurgency strategy, in Octoberthe US announced plans to pay Taliban fighters to switch sides. On 26 Novemberin an interview with CNN 's Christiane AmanpourPresident Hamid Karzai said there is an "urgent need" for negotiations with the Taliban, and made it clear that the Obama administration had opposed such talks.
There was no formal American response. In DecemberAsian Times Online reported that the Taliban had offered to give the US "legal guarantees" that they would not allow Afghanistan to be used for attacks on other countries, and that there had been no formal American response.
On 6 December, US officials indicated that they have not ruled out talks with the Taliban. Several days later it was reported that Gates saw potential for reconciliation with the Taliban, but not with Al-Qaeda. Furthermore, he said that reconciliation would politically end the insurgency and the war. But he said reconciliation must be on the Afghan government's terms, and that the Taliban must be subject to the sovereignty of the government.
InGeneral McChrystal said his troop surge could lead to a negotiated peace with the Taliban. Jonathan Cristol argued that Taliban leaders "have been willing to negotiate, but from a position of relative strength and their goal is no longer a warm relationship with the US-that ship sailed long ago. The UN did not recognize the Taliban as the legitimate government of Afghanistan, most foreign donors and aid workers were non-Muslims, and the Taliban vented fundamental objections to the sort of 'help' the UN offered.
Let us state what sort of education the UN wants. This is a big infidel policy which gives such obscene freedom to women which would lead to adultery and herald the destruction of Islam.
On the Front Lines with the Taliban - Fault Lines
In any Islamic country where adultery becomes common, that country is destroyed and enters the domination of the infidels because their men become like women and women cannot defend themselves. Anyone who talks to us should do so within Islam's framework.
The Holy Koran cannot adjust itself to other people's requirements, people should adjust themselves to the requirements of the Holy Koran. In Julythe Taliban closed "all NGO offices" by force after those organizations refused to move to a bombed-out former Polytechnic College as ordered.
Aroun the UN drew up sanctions against officials and leaders of Taliban, because of their harbouring Osama bin Laden.
Several of them Taliban leaders have subsequently been killed. InBritish foreign secretary Miliband and US Secretary Hillary Clinton had called for talks with 'regular Taliban fighters' while bypassing their top leaders who supposedly were 'committed to global jihad'. Kai Eidethe top UN official in Afghanistan, called for talks with Taliban at the highest level, suggesting Mullah Omar -even though Omar had recently dismissed such overtures as long as foreign troops were in Afghanistan.
Inthe UN lifted sanctions on the Taliban, and requested that Taliban leaders and others be removed from terrorism watch lists. In the US and Europe announced support for President Karzai's latest attempt to negotiate peace with the Taliban. Inbin Laden moved to Afghanistan from Sudan. He came without invitation, and sometimes irritated Mullah Omar with his declaration of war and fatwas against citizens of third-party countries, but relations between the two groups improved over time, to the point that Mullah Omar rebuffed his group's patron Saudi Arabia, insulting Saudi minister Prince Turki while reneging on an earlier promise to turn bin Laden over to the Saudis.
Bin Laden was able to forge an alliance between the Taliban and al-Qaeda. For more newsletters click here. Sign up for the Early Bird Brief - a daily roundup of military and defense news stories from around the globe. By giving us your email, you are opting in to the Early Bird Brief.
Today, the U. Khalilzad is a Pashtun, as are the overwhelming majority of the Taliban. So far, the only U. What about the Taliban themselves? They have all the hallmarks of a vicious terrorist group. Since their downfall inthey have been responsible for some of the worst acts of terror Afghanistan has ever seen. They are closely associated with al-Qaida, whose leader has pledged allegiance to the Taliban leader, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, and multiple Pakistani terror groups involved in terror attacks against foreign forces and interests in Afghanistan.
They also carry out joint operations against military and civilian people in Afghanistan. The foreign fighters and their families live amongst the Taliban. Can anyone with his right mind think that the Taliban will extricate themselves from these terror groups? The Taliban are negotiating from a position of strength and now that they clearly see war fatigue on the part of the United States, they will agree to U.
They will rely on Pakistan to be their sponsor, as it has been for more than two decades since their creation there. In fact one wonders why the U. The Trump administration is pushing peace talks that aim to end the year conflict. All the lives and trillions of dollars of U. This will be a blatant breach of the trust that the Afghans have placed in America. Afghans fought the Soviets with over a million losses of lives with the understanding that it was not just their war.
They were abandoned after the Soviet withdrawal. They thought that this time it would be different. To their great sorrow, they are learning this is not so. They hoped that the United States would honor the security agreement that it had signed with them. They hoped that repeated reassurances given to them by Americans would be honored.
Instead, they watch with amazement that the United States is busy finding the fastest way out of Afghanistan, while leaving the Afghans to the wolves, only this time even more vicious ones. Is this the legacy the U. Akram Gizabi is chairman of the World Hazara Council. If you would like to respond, or have an editorial of your own you would like to submit, please contact Military Times managing editor Howard Altman, haltman militarytimes.
Akram Gizabi. US envoy hails latest talks with Taliban as the best ever The U.