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Posted by: Kagrel Posted on: 12.05.2020

When atoms decay, they emit three types of radiation, alpha, beta and gamma. The alpha and beta radiation consist of actual matter that shoots off the atom, while gamma rays are electromagnetic waves. All three kinds of radiation are potentially hazardous to living tissue, but some more than others, as will be explained later on. The first type of radiation, Alpha, consists of two neutrons and two protons bound together to the nucleus of a Helium atom. Though the least powerful of the three types of radiation, alpha particles are nonetheless the most densely ionizing of the three. That means when alpha rays can cause mutations in any living tissue they come into contact with, potentially causing unusual chemical reactions in the cell and possible cancer.

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Gamma raysalso known as gamma radiationrefers to electromagnetic radiation no rest mass, no charge of a very high energies. Gamma rays are high-energy photons with very short wavelengths and thus very high frequency. Since the gamma rays are in substance only a very high-energy photons, they are very penetrating matter and are thus biologically hazardous.

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Gamma rays can travel thousands of feet in air and can easily pass through the human body. In most practical laboratory sources, the excited nuclear states are created in the decay of a parent radionuclide, therefore a gamma decay typically accompanies other forms of decaysuch as alpha or beta decay.

Radiation and also gamma rays are all around us.

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In, around, and above the world we live in. It is a part of our natural world that has been here since the birth of our planet.

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Natural sources of gamma rays on Earth are inter alia gamma rays from naturally occurring radionuclides, particularly potassium Potasium is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.

This isotope can be found in soil, water also in meat and bananas. This is not the only example of natural source of gamma rays.

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The electrons are negatively charged, almost massless particles that nevertheless account for most of the size of the atom. Electrons were discovered by Sir John Joseph Thomson in Electrons are located in an electron cloud, which is the area surrounding the nucleus of the atom.

The electron is only one member of a class of elementary particleswhich forms an atom.

Radiation Rays: Alpha, Beta and Gamma

An annihilation occurs, when a low-energy positron collides with a low-energy electron. The modern photon concept was developed by Albert Einstein to explain of the photoelectric effect, in which he proposed the existence of discrete energy packets during the transmission of light.

Before Albert Einstein, notably the German physicist Max Planck had prepared the way for the concept by explaining that objects that emit and absorb light do so only in amounts of energy that are quantized, that means every change of energy can occur only by certain particular discrete amounts and the object cannot change energy in any arbitrary way.

The concept of modern photon came into general use after the physicist Arthur H. When atoms decay, they emit three types of radiation, alpha, beta and gamma.

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The alpha and beta radiation consist of actual matter that shoots off the atom, while gamma rays are electromagnetic waves. All three kinds of radiation are potentially hazardous to living tissue, but some more than others, as will be explained later on.

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The first type of radiation, Alpha, consists of two neutrons and two protons bound together to the nucleus of a Helium atom. Though the least powerful of the three types of radiation, alpha particles are nonetheless the most densely ionizing of the three.

That means when alpha rays can cause mutations in any living tissue they come into contact with, potentially causing unusual chemical reactions in the cell and possible cancer. They are still viewed as the least dangerous form of radiation, as long as it's not ingested or inhaled, because it can be stopped by even a thin sheet of paper or even skin, meaning that it cannot enter the body very easily.

A case of alpha radiation poisoning made international news a few years ago when Russian dissident Alexander Litvinenko was believed to have been poisoned with it by the Russian spy service. Alpha particles are most commonly used in smoke alarms.

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These alarms contain a tiny amount of decaying Americium between two sheets of metal. The decaying Americium emits alpha radiation. A small electric current is then passed through one of the sheets and into the second one.

When the field of alpha radiation is blocked by smoke, the alarm goes off. This alpha radiation is not harmful because it is very localised and any radiation that might escape would be stopped quickly in the air and would be extremely difficult to get into your body. Beta radiation consists of an electron and is characterized by its high energy and speed. Beta radiation is more hazardous because, like alpha radiation, it can cause ionisation of living cells.

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Unlike alpha radiation, though, beta radiation has the capacity to pass through living cells, though it can be stopped by an aluminum sheet. A particle of beta radiation can cause spontaneous mutation and cancer when it comes into contact with DNA.

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Beta radiation is mainly used in industrial processes such as paper mills and aluminium foil production. A beta radiation source is placed above the sheets coming out of the machines while a Geiger counter, or radiation reader, is placed underneath. The purpose of this is to test the thickness of the sheets.

Radiation used in carbon dating alpha beta or gamma

Because the beta radiation can only partially penetrate aluminium foil, if the readings on the Geiger counter are too low, it means that the aluminium foil is too thick and that the presses are adjusted to make the sheets thinner. Likewise, if the Geiger reading is too high, the presses are adjusted to make the sheets thicker. Sidenote : The blue glow produced in some nuclear power plant pools is due to high speed beta particles moving faster than that of light traveling through water.

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Gamma rays are high frequency, extremely-short-wavelength electromagnetic waves with no mass and no charge. They are emitted by a decaying nucleus, that expels the gamma rays in an effort to become more stable as an atom.

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Gamma rays have the most energy and can penetrate substances up to a few centimetres of lead or a few metres of concrete. Even with such intense barriers, some radiation may still get through because of how small the rays are.

Beta Particles Description Beta Particles. Beta particles are high-energy, high-speed electrons or positrons emitted by certain fission fragments or by certain primordial radioactive nuclei such as potassium The beta particles are a form of ionizing radiation also known as beta rays. The production of beta particles is termed beta fatgirlnmotion.com are two forms of beta decay, the electron . Beta decay of carbon dating, years, is not all radiocarbon dating and how old technology. Radio-Carbon dating purposes, used in an organism's remains. However, of radiation can only one way for its use for dating can also provides stable nucleus. Jul 28,   Mass of Alpha Beta and Gamma Radiation. Alpha particles are made of four nucleons. Therefore, they have a mass of approximately, fatgirlnmotion.com, the mass of an alpha particle is ? kg = GeV/c 2.; Electrons and Positrons, which make up beta particles, are antiparticles of .

Though the least ionising of all the forms of radiation, that doesn't mean Gamma rays aren't dangerous. They are likely to be emitted alongside alpha and beta radiation, though some isotopes emit gamma radiation exclusively. Gamma rays are the most useful type of radiation because they can kill off living cells easily, without lingering there. They are therefore often used to fight cancer and to sterilise food, and kinds of medical equipment that would either melt or become compromised by bleaches and other disinfectants.

Gamma rays are also used to detect leaking pipes. In those situations, a gamma ray source is placed into the substance flowing through the pipe. Then, someone with a Geiger-Muller tube above-ground will measure the radiation given off.

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The leak will be identified wherever the count on the Geiger-Muller tube spikes, indicating a large presence of gamma radiation coming out of the pipes. Radiocarbon dating is used to determine the age of once-living tissue, including objects like string, rope, and boats, all of which were made from living tissue.

The radioactive isotope measured in carbon dating is carbon, which is produced when cosmic rays act on nitrogen in the upper atmosphere.

Carbon dating is the method for determining the age of an object containing organic materials. We use the properties of a radiocarbon which is a radioactive isotope. The symbol for this isotope is: ?? C Carbon dating is associated with beta particles. Therefore beta radiation is used for carbon dating not Alpha or Gamma.

Only one in everycarbon atoms are carbon, but they are easily detected. All living cells take up carbon, whether from photosynthesis or eating other living cells. When a living cell dies, it stops taking in carbon, because it stops photosynthesising or eating, and then gradually over time the carbon decays and is no longer found in the tissue.

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Carbon emits beta particles and gamma rays. The half-life of carbon the time in which it takes from the radiation emitted from the source to be halved works out to be 5, years.

There are, of course, limitations and inaccuracies to carbon dating. For example we make the assumption that the amount of carbon in the atmosphere back when the tissue was living, is the same as nowadays.

I hope this article has helped you understand nuclear radiation. If you have any questions, suggestions or issues please leave a comment below no sign up required and I will try to answer it either on the comments section or ate the article to incorporate it! Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.

Thank you for putting this article together. It is very concise, detailed and written in an easy to understand way. Enjoyed this topic but would have loved to get more uses of alpha,beta,and gamma radiations. Radioactivity basically means the emition of particles known as alpha,beta and gamma these are the radiations that come out of a nucleus and make the nucleus stable! This material is helpful but this is just like introduction.

Jan 27,   a) Carbon, used in carbon dating, decays by beta emission. b) Uranium decays by alpha emission. Solution. a) Beta particles have the symbol \(\ce{_{-1}^0e}\). Emitting a beta particle causes the atomic number to increase by 1 and the mass number to not change. We get atomic numbers and symbols for elements using our periodic table. Radioactive decay is used in carbon dating, fracking and radiotherapy. Dangers of radiation include causing cancer. Nuclear fission is the splitting of a radioactive nucleus to release energy. The second kind of radiation is a beta particle. It's an electron that is not attached to an atom. It has a small mass and a negative charge. Tritium, which is produced by cosmic radiation in the atmosphere and exists all around us, emits beta radiation. Carbon, used in carbon-dating of fossils and other artifacts, also emits beta particles.

There mist be some extra or unique information about these rays. To this extent I think everybody knows. Very interesting nd usefull information

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