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By Dr. David R. A spectacular new book which was published in England two years ago and which was made into a highly acclaimed British television series is stirring up international controversy because it provides the first evidence of the validity of the stories contained in the Hebrew Scriptures concerning the birth of the nation of Israel. It was written by an Egyptologist by the name of David Rohl who is currently completing his doctoral thesis at University College in London. The book has not yet been published in the United States, but it is scheduled for publication in July by Random House under the title, Pharaohs and Kings.

These inscriptions describe wars during the reigns of Assyrian kings Shalmaneser III and Sennacherib and even name the same Hittite kings as the Egyptian records27 see chart. Traditional Egyptian dates must be wrong. Problems Timeline B. According to the Cambridge Encyclopedia on Archaeology: When the radiocarbon method was first tested, good agreement was found between radiocarbon dates and historical dates for samples of known age. As measurements became more precise, however, it gradually became apparent that there were systematic discrepancies between the dates that were being obtained and those that could be expected from historical evidence [i.

Dating egyptian dynasties

These differences were most marked in the period before about the midfirst millennium B. Dates for the earliest comparative material available, reeds used as bonding between mud brick courses of tombs of Egyptians Dynasty I, about 3, B.

Just as carbon dating is more consistent with a young earth than most people realize, carbon dating is consistent with a much younger Egyptian civilization than traditional chronology claims.

Efforts to assign familiar dates to events of antiquity require a starting point, a known date. Four starting points provide secure anchors for the chronology of the Middle East. By counting both backward and forward from these four dates, the chronologist can assign familiar dates from creation to Christ34 and combine the annals of the ancient nations to build a consistent chronology.

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Starting Points B. Courville, and David Down, have produced fine work in this area. Some begin with the Bible, while others begin with starting points such as the battle of Thebes.

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The Christian should only accept revised chronology that is consistent with the Bible. David Down, in Unwrapping the Pharaohs, has synthesized the work of many experts into a cohesive narrative consistent with the Bible. He points out many synchronisms between the histories of Israel and Egypt, providing a highly plausible identification for many of the characters in the Old Testament.

Furthermore, his work is consistent with the history of surrounding nations and allows the Hittites to slip into their proper niche in the context of their Assyrian and Egyptian neighbors.

Archaeology around the world has instead revealed advanced ancient technology without discernible periods of evolution. Abram grew up in the advanced but idolatrous culture of Ur about three centuries after the Flood. The 12th and 13th dynasties provide the backdrop for the stories of Joseph, the oppression of the Israelites, Moses, and the Exodus.

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The biblical dates for these events can provide dates for these dynasties see chart. Joseph as Vizier Sesostris I of the 12th dynasty had a powerful vizier named Mentuhotep. When he arrived, the great personages bowed down before him at the outer door of the royal palace.

Thus I prolonged the life of its inhabitants and preserved the food which it produced. Israelite Slavery The late 12th dynasty reveals evidence for Israelite slavery. The building material of choice in the Middle Kingdom was no longer stones but rather bricks composed of mud and straw. Testimony of the Dead Examinations of cemeteries at Tell ed-Daba and Kahun, areas with high Semitic slave populations, have been particularly supportive of the biblical narrative.

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Graves at ed-Daba reveal that 65 percent of the dead were infants. They contained babies, sometimes buried two or three to a box, and aged only a few months at death. These disorganized, crowded burials suggest the need for rapid burial of large numbers of people. The quantity, range, and type of articles of everyday use which were left behind suggest that the departure was sudden and ufatgirlnmotion.comemeditated.

The Hyksos Just a few years after the Exodus, the 13th dynasty ended, and the Second Intermediate Period, the time of Hyksos rule, began. Manetho reported: Men of ignoble birth out of the eastern parts. This whole nation was styled Hycsos54 emphasis added.

Manetho places this conquest at the end of the 13th dynasty. However, discoveries in recent years have confirmed the use of horses and chariots in the 12th and the 13th dynasties, prior to the Hyksos invasion. Some have hypothesized that the Hyksos were Amalekites. The 17th dynasty overthrew the Hyksos58 and began the New Kingdom.

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Genubath eventually became king of Edom. Nefrubity dropped out of the Egyptian records and may have been the Egyptian princess that Solomon married to seal his 1 Kings treaty with Egypt. Queen of Sheba and Hatshepsut Another mysterious Bible character emerges from the 18th dynasty.

First Kings 10 says the queen of Sheba visited Solomon, giving and receiving great gifts. He listed these treasures on the wall of the temple at Karnak.

Nevertheless, Egyptologists believe themselves to be on fairly firm ground when dating the beginning of the Ancient Kingdom (1st and 2nd dynasty) about bc, the beginning of the 11th dynasty at bc, and of the Middle Kingdom (12th dynasty) at bc. Jan 12, á Ethiopia (Kush) refers to southern Egypt or Sudan. The 18th dynasty's headquarters was in southern Egypt, so this reference likely refers to another 18th dynasty pharaoh, possibly Amenhotep II 6. Ahab and Akhenaton Late in the 18th dynasty, one of Egypt's most famous families set the stage for both biblical and Hittite synchronisms. 46 rowsá They are usually, but not always, traditionally divided into thirty-two pharaonic dynasties; .

Ethiopia Kush refers to southern Egypt or Sudan. The city of Samaria, according to 1 Kingshad a governor named Amon an Egyptian name. The Amarna letters call this governor Aman-appa and describe a severe famine that is consistent with the famine in the days of Ahab and Elijah. The rest of the revised chronology shifts the 19th dynasty dates three to five centuries later than the traditional dates. Ramses III, of the 20th dynasty, reported the annihilation of the Hittites during his reign.

Sneferu Khufu Radjedef Khafre Menkaura Shepseskaf The Old Kingdom began in the 27th century BC, the Middle Kingdom in the 21st century BC and the New Kingdom in the mid- 16th century BC. But there are details which are still being argued about. The dates for the Early Dynastic Period can vary by up to years, up to 30 years in the New Kingdom, and a few years for the Late Period.

Revised chronology allows the Hittites to still exist at the time the Assyrians claimed to be at war with them. In fact, the Royal Cache at Luxor contained a labeled 21st dynasty mummy wrapped in 22nd dynasty linen!

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Hezekiah and Taharka The biblical synchronism in this period involves Hezekiah. Taharka later rebelled against the Assyrian domination of Egypt, dying in B.

Returning from his B. Jeremiah and Hophra One final biblical synchronism occurs in connection with the fate of 26th dynasty pharaoh, Hophra. Following a coup, Hophra fled to Babylon. There, he acquired an army and returned to reclaim his throne.

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Jeremiah predicted his defeat, and the prophecy recorded in Jeremiah was fulfilled. Isaiah warned against going down to Egypt for help Isaiah This phrase has come to symbolize a warning not to go to the world for truth. God determines truth.

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Historians examine fragmentary clues and fill in the gaps based on their presuppositions. Those presuppositions may be biblical or traditional. Accepting traditional Egyptian chronology necessitates rejection of biblical truth. Accepting biblical chronology allows a reconstruction of ancient chronology on a foundation of truth. Viewing the evidence from a biblical framework makes the histories of Egypt and the Old Testament fit together like two sides of a zipper.

For further studies of revised chronologies, because the Bible is the ultimate standard, I suggest consulting Dr. Well, we listened! Many view the original New Answers Book as an essential tool for modern discipleship.

Ancient Egypt: Crash Course World History #4

Both of these books answer such questions as: Can natural processes explain the origin of life? Can creationists be real scientists? Where did Cain get his wife? Is evolution a religion? After each set is an Intermediate Period whose history is less clear. Duration of dynasties comes from Manetho. Dates come from various interpretations of the Sothic cycle.

Note: Meyer, Breasted, and many others give even earlier dates. Manetho is quoted by Josephus, Eusebius, Africanus, and Syncellus.

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Ashton and D. The famous Ebers Papyrus allegedly confirms a B. However, this document refers to a monthly rising of Sothis, an astronomical impossibility.

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Conservative Bible scholars calculate the Exodus to have occurred sometime between - B. Solomon began to build the temple in the fourth year of his reign, in the th year after the Exodus from Egypt, according to I Kings From this data, the Exodus occurred around to B. The dates are confirmed by additional Scriptures. See Dr. Jean Champollion translated the famous Rosetta stone, unlocking the secret of Egyptian hieroglyphics.

See 1 Kings Ashton and Down, Unwrapping the Pharaohs, p. Ibid, p. Anatolia, p. But his hypocoristicon was Sisah, which transliterated into Hebrew, becomes Shishak. Rohl makes two adjustments in the traditional biblical chronology. The first is one that Evangelicals will have to wrestle with. He shortens the sojourn in Egypt from years to years, which results in the date of the Exodus shifting from BC to BC.

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From this passage, the length of the Egyptian sojourn seems to be indisputable. But, Rohl points out that our modern translations of this passage are based on the Masoretic text which dates from the 4th Century AD. Rohl shows that there are three more ancient versions of this text and that all three state that the years was from the time the Hebrews entered the land of Canaan, not Egypt. There are other passages in the Hebrew Scriptures which provide clues that substantiate the revised Exodus date of BC.

The second adjustment Rohl makes in the biblical chronology is to lengthen the time of the wilderness wanderings, the conquest of Canaan, and the period of the Judges from years to years. This adjustment does not raise any biblical problems since it corresponds to dating clues in the biblical narrative see 1 Kings and Judges For example, according to the New Chronology, the pharaoh of the Exodus becomes Dudimose at the end of the 13th Dynasty.

Could this be a reference to the plagues of Moses? Recent excavations of Tel ed-Daba, located in the Nile delta area and referred to in the Bible as the land of Goshen Genesis an have revealed it to be the ancient city of Avaris. An examination of the tombs in this area has produced the startling discovery that the people who populated the area were from Palestine and Syria.

Rohl believes these were the children of Israel. Another interesting discovery is that the area has a much higher percentage of infant burials than what has been found at other ancient archeological sites.

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Rohl believes this is due to the Egyptian slaughter of the Israelite infant males at the time of the birth of Moses. As further evidence of a significant Jewish presence in Egypt, Rohl points to a tattered papyrus scroll in the Brooklyn Museum scroll The scroll fragment contains a copy of a royal decree which authorizes the transfer of ownership of a group of slaves.

Over half the names of the slaves listed in the document are Semitic, including such common Hebrew names as Menahem, Issachar, and Asher. Rohl concludes that this must have been the retirement palace of Joseph, built in the midst of his people. In the excavators began to uncover a large pyramid-style tomb adjacent to the palace. They discovered that the tomb had been carefully emptied in antiquity. There was no evidence of the ransacking that characterizes the work of grave robbers.

Further, they discovered the head of a very large statue of the man who had been buried in the tomb. The head is most unusual in that it displays very un-Egyptian type features like a mushroom shaped coiffure or wig.

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The figure is also clean shaven. Most remarkably, this person is wrapped in a coat of many colors! Rohl concludes that this is a statue of Joseph, and in the process, he reminds the reader that before Joseph died, he made the sons of Israel swear that when they returned to Canaan, they would take his bones with them Genesis We are told in Exodus that when the Exodus began, Moses ordered that the bones of Joseph be taken with them.

And in Joshuawe are told that Joseph was reburied in Shechem, which is located in the hills of central Israel, in the area called Samaria.

The reason I qualified that statement is because Rohl points out that a review of ancient documents, using the New Chronology, may have produced letters referring to David as well as letters written to the Egyptian court by King Saul of Israel!

They exist in the form of cuneiform tablets and they mainly consist of letters sent to the pharaoh by foreign kings.

Now, no one has ever searched these tablets for letters from the United Monarchy of Israel Saul, David and Solomon because, according to the conventional chronology, Akhenaten late 18th Dynasty lived and died long before the United Monarchy of Israel was established. But the New Chronology places Akhenaten at the beginning of the reign of Saul.

So, Rohl went to these documents with the expectation of finding correspondence from the new Hebrew kingdom an expectation no one else had ever had. But the New Chronology places them during the reign of King Saul when David and his mighty men kept alive by pillaging the countryside. Rohl concludes that these letters relate to David and his soldiers of fortune who hired themselves out as mercenaries.

Rohl reviews the letters in detail to show that they describe events that parallel incidents during the reign of Saul. The evidence he presents in behalf of these conclusions is fascinating and convincing. So there you have it - the New Chronology producing evidence all over the landscape that substantiates the biblical records concerning the origins of the Jews, their formation as a nation in Egypt, their exodus and wanderings, and their conquest of Canaan.

The evidence has been there all along, but it has been invisible because of flawed Egyptian chronologies.

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Well, she was right when relating the destruction to the conventional chronologies. But the New Chronology has the Jews entering the land at least years earlier, precisely at the time that Jericho was destroyed! You will find it to be a faith building experience. The Discovery Channel has recently made the BBC television adaptation of the book available to the public that run a total of minutes.

It comes in an attractive slip case box and can be ordered by calling The Jesus Ossuary. Observations on the Woman of Revelation Roman Catholicism. The New Egyptian Chronology.



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