All advantages of rubidium-strontium dating with

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Rb-Sr geochronology. Parent - daughter ratio : The ratio of rubidium Rb to strontium Sr. The daughter nuclide Sr is represented by Sr, which is stable and not subject to radiogenic ingrowth and constitutes approximately 9. Initial isotope equilibrium : The assumption that at the time of formation of a rock, all phases therein share the same Sr isotope composition; a prerequisite for an isochron. Isochron : A best-fit line of three or more phases in a Nicolaysen diagram with its slope corresponding to an age of phases that are in initial isotope equilibrium. Two-point isochrons may be used and can have geologic significance but do not allow constraints on their reliability.

Because rubidium is concentrated in crustal rocks, the continents have a much higher abundance of the daughter isotope strontium compared with the stable isotopes. A ratio for average continental crust of about 0. This difference may appear small, but, considering that modern instruments can make the determination to a few parts in 70, it is quite significant.

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Dissolved strontium in the oceans today has a value of 0. Thus, if well-dated, unaltered fossil shells containing strontium from ancient seawater are analyzed, changes in this ratio with time can be observed and applied in reverse to estimate the time when fossils of unknown age were deposited.

The rubidium-strontium pair is ideally suited for the isochron dating of igneous rocks.

Mar 18,   The rubidium-strontium dating method is a radiometric dating technique used by scientists to determine the age of rocks and minerals from the quantities they contain of specific isotopes of rubidium (87Rb) and strontium (87Sr, 86Sr). 3. Rubidium-strontium dating, method of estimating the age of rocks, minerals, and meteorites from measurements of the amount of the stable isotope strontium formed by the decay of the unstable isotope rubidium that was present in the rock at the time of its formation. Rubidium comprises percent of the total atomic abundance of rubidium, and of the four isotopes of strontium, only. Potassium -bearing minerals including several varieties of mica, are ideal for rubidium-strontium dating as they have abundant parent rubidium and a low abundance of initial strontium. In most cases, the changes in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio are so large that an initial value can be assumed without jeopardizing the accuracy of the results.

As a liquid rock cools, first one mineral and then another achieves saturation and precipitates, each extracting specific elements in the process. Strontium is extracted in many minerals that are formed early, whereas rubidium is gradually concentrated in the final liquid phase.

In practice, rock samples weighing several kilograms each are collected from a suite of rocks that are believed to have been part of a single homogeneous liquid prior to solidification.

The samples are crushed and homogenized to produce a fine representative rock powder from which a fraction of a gram is withdrawn and dissolved in the presence of appropriate isotopic traces, or spikes. Strontium and rubidium are extracted and loaded into the mass spectrometer, and the values appropriate to the x and y coordinates are calculated from the isotopic ratios measured.

Once plotted as R1 p i. Using estimates of measurement precision, the crucial question of whether or not scatter outside of measurement error exists is addressed. Such scatter would constitute a geologic component, indicating that one or more of the underlying assumptions has been violated and that the age indicated is probably not valid.

For an isochron to be valid, each sample tested must 1 have had the same initial ratio, 2 have been a closed system over geologic time, and 3 have the same age. Well-preserved, unweathered rocks that crystallized rapidly and have not been subjected to major reheating events are most likely to give valid isochrons. Weathering is a disturbing influence, as is leaching or exchange by hot crustal fluids, since many secondary minerals contain rubidium.

Synonyms Rb-Sr geochronology. Rb decays to Sr with a half-life of approximately 49 billion years. This makes the Rb-Sr dating technique, in principle, suitable to date samples from the infant stages of the solar system to very recent igneous events, i.

Table 1 Relative abundances of the stable isotopes of Sr average atomic mass of Strontium Sr Rubidium Rb Sr 0. For dating with the Rb-Sr technique, at least two phases either whole rocks or minerals with different Rb-Sr ratios are required. To directly compare Sr isotope compositions of these phases, irrespective of their absolute amount of Rb and Sr, all Sr values are reported relative to a stable Sr isotope Sr that is not subject to radiogenic ingrowth.

Open image in new window. By successfully addressing all of the abovementioned parameters, a precision in Rb-Sr ages can be achieved that is comparable to other dating techniques. However, a systematic bias can be introduced by insufficient knowledge of the Rb decay constant Begemann et al. The revision of this value implies that all previously reported Rb-Sr ages are ca.

The most widely used application of the Rb-Sr dating technique is in determining the age of crystallization of igneous rocks. For this, either multiple whole rocks with a genetic, often comagmatic relationship or mineral separates from a single rock that formed contemporaneously are used to date the emplacement event.

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This implies that all species used for the dating share an identical Sr isotope composition at the time of formation.

Rock suites and minerals need to be carefully evaluated to fulfill this criterion, which is often not the case Field and Raheimor to assess subsequent alteration by secondary processes. Examples of such cases are detailed below. However, in the ideal case of isotope coherence between samples and further textural or petrogenetic evidence for an igneous origin of a rock, an age for a suite of samples can be calculated.

The Rubidium-Strontium Dating Method Page 3 87Rb/86Sr, Ages Dating Summary Average 28, Maximum 91, Minimum 3, Difference 88, Table 5 There is almost a 90 billion years difference between the oldest and youngest dates. Below we can see some of the maximum ages and how stupid they are. 87Rb/86Sr, Maximum Ages Age AgeAuthor: Paul Nethercott. Good uses of Radioactive isotopes. Some good uses of radioactive isotopes are: Smoke detectors, agricultural applications, radioactive tracers, food irradiation, irradiation in pest control, archaeological dating, and medical uses. Nov 17,   Rubidium-strontium dating The rubidium-strontium dating method is a radiometric dating technique used by scientists to determine the age of rocks and minerals from the quantities they contain of specific isotopes of rubidium (87 Rb) and strontium (87 Sr, 86 Sr). 3.

For this, in the isochron diagram of Fig. Obviously, two or more co-genetic species are required for this dating method. An example for one of the first dating attempts of a suite of Archean igneous whole rocks from the Qorqut igneous complex in Greenland Moorbath et al. A potential complication for accurate age determinations of igneous rocks with the Rb-Sr technique may result from the mixing of two isotopically distinct magmatic reservoirs at or close to the time of emplacement, where isotope equilibrium is not achieved prior to crystallization.

Isotope mixing between two reservoirs cannot easily be identified in a magmatic suite without additional age constraints or other petrologic genetic information. Mixing of the two end-members produces a straight line in an isotope evolution diagram, because both abscissa and ordinate are normalized to the same isotope Sr Mixing thus mimics isochron relationships and indicates an age that is older than the actual igneous-rock-forming event.

This is particularly important for bulk rock analyses where geochemical heterogeneity can be preserved more easily than for mineral species derived from a single sample.

This effect is illustrated in Fig. Timescales of isotope closure vary considerably and, as noted, depend on a number of parameters. A good example is cooling of the Great Dyke, a layered mafic intrusion in the Zimbabwe Craton. This massive mantle-derived igneous body is an extreme case of a magmatic body that intruded into presumably hot country rock, such that the thermal gradient between the intrusion and the ambient country rocks was small.

The age deduced from ortho- and clinopyroxenes is identical to the age calculated from combined pyroxene-biotite, which indicates a similar T C for both minerals.

Internal mineral isochrons for individual whole rocks can yield age information on the thermal event, whereas on a whole rock scale the original emplacement age of an igneous rock can be preserved.

For this to occur, the system is closed on a bulk rock scale and preserves its amount of accumulated Sr and Rb concentration, and only a redistribution between mineral phases took place. This can be the case if little or no fluids are involved in the metamorphic reactions, as fluids often act as a transport medium for Rb and Sr beyond the scales of bulk rock samples.

The combination of igneous whole rock and metamorphic mineral isochrons is illustrated in Fig.

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This ideal case scenario of metamorphic reset on a mineral scale and preservation of primary age information on a whole rock scale has been observed in the Carn Chuinneag Intrusion in Scotland Long ; Pidgeon and Johnson Unfortunately, in most cases the cooling of metamorphic terranes can be very slow such that individual mineral phases do not close contemporaneously, so that their isotopic clock does not start ticking at the same time.

This is then reflected in an errorchron relationship that, at best, only allows the broad determination of cooling paths or an approximation of t m that often fails modern requirements on precision. On the other hand, isotope systems with a high closure temperature may not yield metamorphic ages as they may only be partially reset, whereas Rb-Sr may have been fully re-equilibrated.

Such a case is reported for the Yilgarn block in Western Australia Fig. Sm-Nd data, however, preserved its isotope character during this metamorphic event and can be used to reconstruct the history of the precursor of the metamorphic terrane.

Advantages of rubidium-strontium dating

Therefore, if placed in a geologic context, the Rb-Sr systematics of metamorphic rocks have the potential to yield precise and accurate age information and may otherwise simply be used to test the extent of isotope equilibrium for a given age by correction for radiogenic ingrowth to the respective initial ratios. An example of such an application is shown in Fig. Pyrite separates from two individual veins yield two well-defined isochrons with a mean age of Both individual determinations give confidence that gold deposition from fluids in the veins occurred at this time.

However, as illustrated in the figure, the source of the fluids is distinguished by their initial isotope compositions, so that a joint-age determination would inevitably result in an errorchron.

Rankenburg et al.

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This age agrees with, but is more precise than, the corresponding U-Pb age of 2. The latter system has also been subject to disturbance in phosphates so that Rb-Sr appears to be more robust with respect to the nonsilicates that often occur in meteorites. Irrespective of the cause of difference in absolute ages using various chronometers, it seems apparent that Rb-Sr can provide accurate and very precise age information that cannot otherwise be determined.

Science, - CrossRef Google Scholar. Amelin, Y. Precise geochronology of phoscorites and carbonatites: the critical role of U-series disequilibrium in age interpretations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta66 13- Anand, M.

Decay scheme of K-Ar, U-Pb and Sm-Nd, petrogenetic implications-part B

Petrology and geochemistry of LaPaz Icefield a new unique low-Ti mare-basalt meteorite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta70 1- Armstrong, R. Earth and Planetary Science Letters1 Baadsgaard, H.

The Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences25- Google Scholar. Begemann, F.

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Call for an improved set of decay constants for geochronological use. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta65 1- Birck, J.

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Chronology and chemical history of parent body of basaltic achondrites studied by RbSr method. Earth and Planetary Science Letters39 1 Rb Sr age of rocks from Apollo landing site and significance of internal isochrons. Earth and Planetary Science Letters26 1 Brannon, J. Alleghenian age of the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead deposit determined by Rb-Sr dating of sphalerite.

Nature, - Campbell, N. Radioactivity of the alkali metals. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society14 Charlier, B. The upper crustal evolution of a large silicic magma body: evidence from crystal-scale rb-sr isotopic Heterogeneities in the fish canyon magmatic system, Colorado. Journal of Petrology48 10- Christensen, J.

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Direct dating of sulfides by Rb-Sr: a critical test using the polaris Mississippi valley-type Zn-Pb deposit. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta59 24- Crowley, J. U-Pb dating of zircon in the Bishop Tuff at the millennial scale. Geology35 12- Davis, D. Determination of Rb decay constant. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta41 12- De Laeter, J.

Narryer, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences32 4- Atomic weights of the elements: review Pure and Applied Chemistry75 6- Delmoro, A. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology81 4- Dodson, M. Closure temperature in cooling geochronological and petrological systems.

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology40 3- Fairbairn, H. The relation of discordant Rb-Sr mineral and whole rock ages in an igneous rock to its time of crystallization and subsequent SrSr86 metamorphism. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta23- Faure, G.

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Principles of Isotope Geology. New York: Wiley, p. Fernandes, V. Field, D.

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Geologically meaningless Rb-Sr total rock isochron. Ganguly, J. Time-temperature relation of mineral isochrons - a thermodynamic model, and illustrative examples for the Rb-Sr system. Earth and Planetary Science Letters81 4- Hahn, O. Geologische Altersbestimmungen mit der Strontiummethode. Chemische Zeitung67 Hans, U. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, - Hurst, R. Earth and Planetary Science Letters27 3- Jenkin, G.

Rb-Sr closure temperatures in bi-mineral rocks - a mode effect and test for different diffusion models. Chemical Geology, - An investigation of closure temperature of the biotite Rb-Sr system: the importance of cation exchange. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta65 7- Kalsbeek, F. The northern extend of the Archean basement of Greenland - a review of Rb-Sr whole rock ages.

Precambrian Research14- Kossert, K. Half-life measurements of Rb by liquid scintillation counting. Applied Radiation and Isotopes59- Lanphere, M.

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Chemical Geology, - Long, L. Journal of Geophysical Research69 8- McCulloch, M. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia30- Minster, J. Earth and Planetary Science Letters32 2- Absolute age of formation of chondrites studied by the RbSr method.

Misawa, K. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta57 19- Moorbath, S. Nature, Precambrian Research5 3- Origin of granitic magma by crustal remobilization - Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb geochronology and isotope geochemistry of the late Archean Qorqut granite complex of southern West Greenland.

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta45 7- Murthy, V. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta35 11- Nakai, S.

Apr 22,   The Rb-Sr dating technique is among the most widely used and most powerful dating tools available in Earth sciences. It is an effective means of dating igneous rocks or metamorphic events and, under special circumstances, can be applied to sedimentary sequences, ore deposits, and past volcanic eruptions or to date fluid events in the deep crust. A widely used dating tool in geosciences is the Rb-Sr decay scheme, which is, due to its long half-life of 49 billion years (Ga), suitable for dating processes and events throughout Earth's history back to the beginning of the solar system. advantages and disadvantages in bold are) o Rubidium - Strontium dating 87 Rb decays to 87 Sr with t 1/2 = x 10 10 years Normalize to non-radioactive 86 Sr When rock forms, ratio of 87 Rb to 86 Sr will vary from place to place in the rock but 87 Sr to 86 Sr ratio is constant.

Rb-Sr dating of sphalerites from Tennessee and the genesis of Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits. Rb-Sr dating of sphalerite from mississippi valley-type MVT ore deposits. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta57 2- Nebel, O.

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Precambrian Research, - International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Evaluation of the Rb decay constant by age comparison against the U-Pb system. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Neumann, W. Discussion of the 87 Rb half-life by absolute counting.

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Earth and Planetary Science Letters33- Nicolaysen, L. Graphic interpretations of discordant age measurements on metamorphic rocks.

Nyquist, L. Rb-Sr age of the Shergotty achondrite and implications for metamorphic resetting of isochron ages. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta43- Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Internal isochron ages of a subophitic basalt clast and a matrix sample from the Y eucrite. Papanastassiou, D. Rb-Sr ages from ocean-of-storms. Earth and Planetary Science Letters8 4- Rb-Sr ages of lunar rocks from the sea of tranquillity.

Earth and Planetary Science Letters8 11- Pidgeon, R.

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